Texas Kids Count

Health Equity for Every Child

Every Texan gratefully acknowledges Methodist Healthcare Ministries of South Texas, Inc., for their financial support of this publication. The opinions expressed in this document are those of Every Texan and do not necessarily reflect the views of Methodist Healthcare Ministries.

Table of Contents

Food Insecurity

A child’s potential to thrive is limited if they face hunger. Not having adequate nutrition impacts how children grow, play, and learn. Texas has one of the highest rates of child food insecurity in the nation, at nearly 22 percent, or almost 1.6 million children.

Health Insurance

Supporting children’s health gives them the best chance of succeeding in school and later in life. Yet, Texas still has the worst child uninsured rate in the U.S. at 12.7%–more than twice the U.S. average of 5.7%. Nearly one in four uninsured children in the U.S. live here in Texas.

Economic Opportunity

Health starts where we live, learn, work, and play. But 1 in 5 Texas children experience poverty. Making sure parents can get to good paying and supportive jobs can reduce financial distress for working families.

Data Dashboard

Food Security

A child’s potential to thrive is limited if they face hunger. Not having adequate nutrition impacts how children grow, play, and learn. Texas has one of the highest rates of child food insecurity in the nation, at nearly 22 percent, or almost 1.6 million children.1

Since the pandemic, the number of food-insecure children has been rising at unprecedented speed, as COVID-related unemployment has put many families in financial stress. In November 2020, 2.6 million adults in Texas (14 percent) reported their household did not have enough food to eat in the past 7 days.2

A family faces food insecurity if they do not have the financial resources to ensure full and consistent access to food.3 For a child to face food insecurity is particularly alarming, as parents already tend to eat less or skip meals to ensure that their children have regular access to meals.4

Increasing rates of child hunger suggest that families are in significant distress that they cannot shield children from.

Children who face food insecurity in infancy or early childhood risk of long-lasting cognitive consequences.

Source: Policy Basics: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2017, April 26).

The cumulative consequences of a child facing food insecurity can linger far beyond the point when that child regains access to regular meals. School-age children that walk into classrooms hungry are less prepared to learn and are more likely to have behavioral problems and emotional problems.[i] The impact of hunger on a child’s educational attainment can translate to poor longer-term outcomes, including lower future earnings.[ii]

Children who face food insecurity in infancy or early childhood risk of long-lasting cognitive consequences.[i] Young children experiencing food insecurity prove more likely to face challenges in kindergarten.[ii] Having adequate food ensures that hunger does not harm early childhood development during a critical period of growth. Even prior to a child’s birth, nutrition impacts children’s potential to flourish without obstacles, as not having adequate nutrition for pregnant mothers impacts the healthy development of the fetus.[iii] Unreliable access to proper nutrition increases the potential for individuals to experience toxic stress—the harmful stress response that can arise living through sustained poverty. Individuals facing the effects of sustained poverty can face stress-related health conditions.[iv] When children are consistently exposed to adverse experiences like toxic stress, they are more likely to have developmental delays.[v]

The cumulative consequences of a child facing food insecurity can linger far beyond the point when that child regains access to regular meals. School-age children that walk into classrooms hungry are less prepared to learn and are more likely to have behavioral problems and emotional problems.[i] The impact of hunger on a child’s educational attainment can translate to poor longer-term outcomes, including lower future earnings.[ii]

Children who face food insecurity in infancy or early childhood risk of long-lasting cognitive consequences.[iii] Young children experiencing food insecurity prove more likely to face challenges in kindergarten.[iv] Having adequate food ensures that hunger does not harm early childhood development during a critical period of growth. Even prior to a child’s birth, nutrition impacts children’s potential to flourish without obstacles, as not having adequate nutrition for pregnant mothers impacts the healthy development of the fetus.[v] Unreliable access to proper nutrition increases the potential for individuals to experience toxic stress—the harmful stress response that can arise living through sustained poverty. Individuals facing the effects of sustained poverty can face stress-related health conditions.[vi] When children are consistently exposed to adverse experiences like toxic stress, they are more likely to have developmental delays.[vii]

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[i] Shankar, P., Chung, R., & Frank, D. A. (2017). Association of Food Insecurity with Childrenʼs Behavioral, Emotional, and Academic Outcomes. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(2), 135–150. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0000000000000383

[ii] Julian, T., & Kominski, R. (2011). (rep.). Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates, American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED523770.pdf

[iii] Policy Basics: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2017, April 26). https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and

[iv] Nelson, B. B., Dudovitz, R. N., Coker, T. R., Barnert, E. S., Biely, C., Li, N., . . . Chung, P. J. (2016). Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2. Pediatrics, 138(2). doi:10.1542/peds.2015-4477

[v] Carlson, S., & Neuberger, Z. (2017, March 29). WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families.

[vi] Center on the Developing Child (2007). The Impact of Early Adversity on Child Development (InBrief). https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-the-impact-of-early-adversity-on-childrens-development/.

[vii] Administration for Children & Families. Early Childhood Adversity. Early Childhood Development. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ecd/child-health-development/early-adversity.

Federal programs help children gain consistent access to healthy food. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides financial support by funding healthy food for up to a year after childbirth. In 2019, about 681,000 Texas women, infants, and children participated in WIC.[i] The average benefit for Texan participants in 2019 was about $26 per month in food.[ii] In the U.S., almost one quarter of children ages 1 to 4 and close to half of all infants benefit from WIC support.[iii] 1.5 million Texans are eligible for WIC, but only 54 percent participated in 2017.

[iv],[v]

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the leading federal anti-hunger program. Eligibility for SNAP is based on meeting a low-income requirement, and it is designed to be particularly accessible for families in temporary financial crisis.[vi] The average SNAP benefit in Texas is $1.28 per person per meal, and SNAP reaches about 1 in 9 Texas residents.[vii] In 2018, 28 percent of Texans children ages 0-17 were enrolled, amounting to 2 million children receiving aid.[viii]

There have been rapid and significant increases in SNAP enrollment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In Texas, SNAP cases jumped from about 1,427,000 in February 2020 to 1,775,000 in September 2020, an increase of nearly 350,000 cases.[ix] (Cases can include more than one individual, meaning even more individuals receive SNAP benefits than that). COVID relief measures included a boost in SNAP benefits, although the poorest households already receiving the maximum benefit did not see an increase.[x]

Federal nutrition programs supporting school-aged children include the National School Lunch Program, the School Breakfast Program, the Afterschool Meals Program, and Summer Nutrition Programs. These programs provide school-based nutrition and also provide support through institutions that work with children, such as churches. In 2018-2019, the National School Lunch Program had on average 2.5 million Texas children participating in free or reduced lunch every day.[xi] About 75 percent of the eligible Texas population received school lunch and breakfast in 2019, a number which shrunk to an estimated 56 percent in 2020.[xii] Due to school closures and subsequent loss of school-based meals, the Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (P-EBT) was created to provide funding for families who were receiving free or reduced-price school lunches.[xiii] P-EBT served over 2.8 million Texas children in four months, amounting to over $816 million in nutrition aid.[xiv]

The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is a federal program that includes young children who are enrolled in participating child care sites, including schools, churches, and community centers.[xv] The support that CACFP provides for care centers helps families afford to work and place their children in child care centers. In 2020, CACFP served meals for an estimated 798,000 Texans.[xvi]

To bridge the gap between nutritional needs and federal programs, private organizations provide support to the public through food banks and food pantries. The largest U.S. hunger-relief organization in Texas, Feeding Texas, reaches over 4 million Texans every year.[xvii]

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[i] U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020, July 10). Annual State Level Data FY 2014-2019: Total Participation. WIC Data Tables. https://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/wic-program.

[ii] U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020, July 10). Annual State Level Data FY 2014-2019: Average Food Monthly Cost Per Person. WIC Data Tables. https://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/wic-program.

[iii] Gray, K., Trippe, C., Tadler, C., Perry, C., Johnson, P., & Betson, D. (2019, December). National- and State-Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and WIC Program Reach in 2017. U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/resource-files/WICEligibles2017-Volume1.pdf.

[iv] Gray, K., Trippe, C., Tadler, C., Perry, C., Johnson, P., & Betson, D. (2019, December). National- and State-Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and WIC Program Reach in 2017. U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/resource-files/WICEligibles2017-Volume1.pdf.

[v] For more information on the physical, mental and economic benefits of WIC, see Carlson, S., & Neuberger, Z. (2017, March 29). WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families.

[vi] Policy Basics: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). (2019, June 25). Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap

[vii] Nchako, C., & Cai, L. (2020, March 16). A Closer Look at Who Benefits from SNAP: State-by-State Fact Sheets: Texas. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/a-closer-look-at-who-benefits-from-snap-state-by-state-fact-sheets.

[viii] The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps) recipients (0-17). KIDS COUNT Data Center . https://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/8984-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-snap-formerly-food-stamps-recipients-0-17?loc=45.

[ix] Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) Statistics: Monthly SNAP Cases & Eligible Individuals Statewide: September 2005 – current. Texas Health and Human Services. https://hhs.texas.gov/about-hhs/records-statistics/data-statistics/supplemental-nutritional-assistance-program-snap-statistics.

[x] Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[xi] The Annie E. Casey Foundation. National School Lunch Program participation in Texas. KIDS COUNT Data Center . https://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/8984-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-snap-formerly-food-stamps-recipients-0-17?loc=45.

[xii] Legislative Appropriations Request For Fiscal Years 2022 and 2023. Texas Department of Agriculture. (2020, October 2). https://www.texasagriculture.gov/Portals/0/Publications/FIN/2022-2023%20LAR%2087th%20REVISED%20Submission_10.07.20.pdf.

[xiii] Hake, M., Engelhard, E., Dewey, A., & Gundersen, C. (2020, April 22). The Impact of the Coronavirus on Child Food Insecurity. Feeding America. https://www.feedingamerica.org/sites/default/files/2020-04/Brief_Impact%20of%20Covid%20on%20Child%20Food%20Insecurity%204.22.20.pdf.

[xiv] Koné Consulting. Documenting P-EBT Implementation Texas Case Study. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities . https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/pebt_texas_case_study.pdf.

[xv] Cooper, R., & Lee, J. (2014, December). Food & Nutrition in Texas. Every Texan. https://everytexan.org/images/HW_2015_01_NutritionReport_web.pdf.

[xvi] Legislative Appropriations Request For Fiscal Years 2022 and 2023. Texas Department of Agriculture. (2020, October 2). https://www.texasagriculture.gov/Portals/0/Publications/FIN/2022-2023%20LAR%2087th%20REVISED%20Submission_10.07.20.pdf.

[xvii] Our Work. Feeding Texas. https://www.feedingtexas.org/about-us/our-work/.

Data from the Census Bureau’s weekly Household Pulse Survey indicates a rising hunger crisis for children with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Over June and July 2020, nearly 2 million Texans with children reported their household did not have enough to eat in the past week because they could not afford it.[i] Across the country, rates of food insecurity are significantly higher than they were pre-pandemic.[ii]

Food insecurity impacts communities across the United States, yet financial stressors at the root of food insecurity disproportionately impact Black and Hispanic communities due to the cumulative impact of racial inequity and disparities in opportunities.[iii] Rates of food insecurity in November 2020 were still high for Texans across the board, but they were at least twice as high for Black (29 percent) and Hispanic (20 percent) adults as what white adults reported (12 percent) for households with children.[iv] Rising unemployment has likely been the driver behind food insecurity, considering Black and Hispanic households are more likely to have workers in low-wage jobs impacted by the pandemic, due to structural inequities in accessing education and employment opportunities.[v] Historical Black and Hispanic exclusion from wealth-building policies also means that these families have fewer assets to fall back on, compared to wealth accumulated by white families that did not face these exclusions.[vi] Disinvestment in low-income communities has resulted in limited access to stores selling healthy food, contributing to the risk of the only accessible food being poor quality and unhealthy.[vii]

Going into the pandemic, 13% of all Texas households had low food security from 2017-2019 – reporting having reduced diet quality and variety. Black households were almost twice as likely at 25%, and Hispanic households at 17% to face this challenge, with white households being less likely at 8%. The same pattern persisted for households experiencing very low food security – eating less or skipping meals multiple times – at 5% for all Texas households but 11% for Black households.[viii]

Many immigrant families are ineligible for federal relief. In general, certain legal immigrants are not eligible for SNAP, and undocumented immigrants are entirely excluded.[ix] Financial support through federal stimulus payments that could have been used for food was also denied to undocumented immigrants, and entire families were denied payments if any adult family member did not have a Social Security number.[x]

In October 2018, the Department of Homeland Security announced a proposed change that meant applicants seeking green cards or immigration status changes would be penalized for using government benefits. For years, the government has denied entry or denied applications for lawful permanent residency based on the risk that a person becomes a “public charge,” but the new rules are particularly harsh towards low-income people in a way not seen previously.[xi] In 2018, early leaked drafts of the proposed regulation showed that the government was considering a wide list of benefits that would be penalized — health insurance programs like Medicaid and CHIP, and nutrition programs like SNAP, WIC, and free and reduced lunch.[xii]

In the confusion, a climate of fear developed within mixed-status families and communities regarding accessing assistance, with trepidation on how the policy changes impacts permanent resident status applications.[xiii] At least 18 states reported up to 20 percent declines in WIC enrollment, as immigrants feared accepting assistance that their children are often legally eligible for, since most children of immigrants are U.S. citizens.[xiv] Texas WIC enrollment numbers have been steadily declining in recent years, dropping from about 886,000 Texans participating in FY 2015, to 681,000 participating in 2019.[xv] The health impacts of reduced program participation will fall on community organizations and state and local government, as families make the difficult choice of surviving without supports due to the threat of immigration consequences.[xvi] One Houston non-profit serving immigrant clients reported a 37 percent decrease in SNAP enrollments between 2016 and 2019, and a 327 percent increase in food pantry demands.[xvii], [xviii]

An often-overlooked population that suffers from food insecurity is college students. Over 70 percent of college students nationwide are “nontraditional,” which includes being financially independent, working full-time while in school, or taking care of dependents.[xix] However, most college students are not eligible for SNAP benefits.[xx] College students may turn to food pantries, and as of September 2018, over 650 colleges nationwide reported having a food pantry on campus, speaking to a widespread acknowledgement of the food insecurity students face.[xxi]

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[i] U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey June 25 – July 7, as calculated in Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[ii] Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[iii] For more information on Texas county demographics by race and ethnicity, see Interactive Maps. Texas Demographic Center. https://demographics.texas.gov/Geography/Maps/Interactive.

[iv] Population Reference Bureau (2020). Analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau, Household Pulse Survey, Oct 28 – Nov 23, 2020. Adults living in households with children who sometimes or often did not have enough food to eat in the past week by race/ethnicity in Texas. https://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/10945-adults-living-in-households-with-children-who-sometimes-or-often-did-not-have-enough-food-to-eat-in-the-past-week-by-race-ethnicity

[v] Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[vi] Lee, J., Deviney, F., & Sohn, B. L. (2017, July). State of Texas Children 2016: Race and Equity. Every Texan. https://everytexan.org/images/KC_2016_SOTCReport_web.pdf.

[vii] Carlson, S., & Neuberger, Z. (2017, March 29). WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families.

[viii] FRAC analysis of 2017-2019 Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement (CPS-FSS) data.

[ix] Policy Basics: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). (2019, June 25). Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap

[x] Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[xi] Hernandez, N. (2020, June). Summary of Research at the Intersection of Public Charge and Health . Protect Immigrant Families. https://protectingimmigrantfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Public-Charge-and-Health-Literature-Review-2020-06-16.pdf.

[xii] Fix, M., Batalova, J., & Greenberg, M. (2018, June). Chilling Effects: The Expected Public Charge Rule and Its Impact on Legal Immigrant Families’ Public Benefits Use. Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/chilling-effects-expected-public-charge-rule-impact-legal-immigrant-families.

[xiii] Parrott, S., Sherman, A., Llobrera, J., Mazzara, A., Beltrán, J., & Leachman, M. (2020, July 21). More Relief Needed to Alleviate Hardship. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/7-21-20pov.pdf.

[xiv] Bottemiller Evich, H. (2018, September 4). Immigrants, fearing Trump crackdown, drop out of nutrition programs. Politico. https://www.politico.com/story/2018/09/03/immigrants-nutrition-food-trump-crackdown-806292.

[xv] U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020, July 10). Annual State Level Data FY 2014-2019: Total Participation. WIC Data Tables. https://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/wic-program.

[xvi] Hernandez, N. (2020, June). Summary of Research at the Intersection of Public Charge and Health . Protect Immigrant Families.

[xvii] Anderson, C. (2020, November). Public Charge and Private Dilemmas: Key Challenges and Best Practices for Fighting the Chilling Effect in Texas, 2017-2019. Children’s Defense Fund – Texas. https://cdftexas.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2020/11/Public-Charge-and-Private-Dilemmas-TX_FINAL-020.pdf.

[xviii] For more information on the intersection of public charge and health, see Hernandez, N. (2020, June). Summary of Research at the Intersection of Public Charge and Health. Protect Immigrant Families. https://protectingimmigrantfamilies.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Public-Charge-and-Health-Literature-Review-2020-06-16.pdf.

For more information on the impact of public charge in Texas and strategies to combat the effects, see Anderson, C. (2020, November). Public Charge and Private Dilemmas: Key Challenges and Best Practices for Fighting the Chilling Effect in Texas, 2017-2019. Children’s Defense Fund – Texas. https://cdftexas.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2020/11/Public-Charge-and-Private-Dilemmas-TX_FINAL-020.pdf.

[xix] Larin, K. (2018, December 21). Food Insecurity: Better Information Could Help Eligible College Students Access Federal Food Assistance Benefits. U.S. Government Accountability Office (U.S. GAO). https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-19-95.

[xx] Policy Basics: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). (2019, June 25). Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap

[xxi] Larin, K. (2018, December 21). Food Insecurity: Better Information Could Help Eligible College Students Access Federal Food Assistance Benefits. U.S. Government Accountability Office (U.S. GAO). https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-19-95.

Effectiveness of strategies reducing food insecurity

On average, SNAP kept 742,000 Texans out of poverty each year between 2013 and 2016, including 389,000 children.[i] Nationwide, about 50 percent of households receiving SNAP benefits experience continued food insecurity, suggesting the need to expand benefits further.[ii] A 35 percent increase in the maximum allowable benefit would decrease the number of children in deep poverty by over 25 percent nationwide, helping families with a financial buffer to access regular and nutritious meals.[iii]

WIC participation, including having mothers enrolled in WIC, has been shown to play a part in healthier births and in babies being more likely to survive infancy, and also in higher academic achievement for students.[iv] The program has a community-level impact: stores that take WIC benefits provide a broader range of healthier foods, positively impacting low-income communities by allowing all residents to access healthy foods in their area.[v]

One in four children experiencing food insecurity lives in a household likely excluded from federal nutrition programs, highlighting the importance of food banks and food pantries in providing nutritional support.[vi]

Financial strain due to the pandemic has led to significant increases in food pantry usage as an important source of food for Americans. However, logistical challenges make it impractical to rely on food pantries to address an unprecedented hunger crisis. Hunger-relief organizations report fewer donations from grocery stores and decreases in volunteers due to COVID-19 stay-at-home measures.[vii] According to Brynne Keith-Jennings at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “While churches and food banks are doing heroic work to address the need created by the COVID-19 pandemic, they are not equipped to address a problem of this scope and scale.”[viii] Instead, Texas can lessen the barriers to enrollment in federal nutrition programs to make sure that no Texan has to worry about their family’s next meal.

[i] Nchako, C., & Cai, L. (2020, March 16). A Closer Look at Who Benefits from SNAP: State-by-State Fact Sheets: Texas. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/a-closer-look-at-who-benefits-from-snap-state-by-state-fact-sheets.

[ii] Coleman-Jensen, Alisha, Matthew P. Rabbitt, Christian A. Gregory, and Anita Singh. 2019. Household Food Security in the United States in 2018, ERR-270, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, as cited in Trisi, D., & Saenz, M. (2020, February 27). Deep Poverty Among Children Rose in TANF’s First Decade, Then Fell as Other Programs Strengthened. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/deep-poverty-among-children-rose-in-tanfs-first-decade-then-fell-as.

[iii] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25246 as cited in Trisi, D., & Saenz, M. (2020, February 27). Deep Poverty Among Children Rose in TANF’s First Decade, Then Fell as Other Programs Strengthened. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/deep-poverty-among-children-rose-in-tanfs-first-decade-then-fell-as.

[iv] Policy Basics: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2017, April 26). https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and

Carlson, S., & Neuberger, Z. (2017, March 29). WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families.

[v] Carlson, S., & Neuberger, Z. (2017, March 29). WIC Works: Addressing the Nutrition and Health Needs of Low-Income Families for 40 Years. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/wic-works-addressing-the-nutrition-and-health-needs-of-low-income-families.

[vi] Coleman-Jensen, Alisha, Matthew P. Rabbitt, Christian A. Gregory, and Anita Singh. 2019. Household Food Security in the United States in 2018, ERR-270, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

[vii] Fernández , S. (2020, April 8). Food banks rely on donations from grocery stores. But as Texans rush stores, grocers have less to give. The Texas Tribune. https://www.texastribune.org/2020/04/08/texas-food-banks-low-supplies-volunteers-during-coronavirus-pandemic/?utm_source=Editorial%3A+Texas+Tribune+Master.

[viii] Keith-Jennings, B. (2020, July 31). New Videos: Amid Economic Crisis, Boosting SNAP Will Make Big Difference. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/blog/new-videos-amid-economic-crisis-boosting-snap-will-make-big-difference.